My thesis contains a lot of information about William Henry Drake and his family, but there was a lot of information that didn’t make it into my thesis because of the tight requirements for the word count of theses. Since completing my thesis, I have also found a lot more information about their lives. My aim is to make this information available here.
I am, therefore, writing a series of blogs on various aspects of the family and will be publishing them as they are completed. I have started with three articles.
The first is a short summary of Henry’s life which provides a framework for the other articles.
The second covers the movements of Henry’s family following his birth in Portugal until, as a young man, he went to the Swan River Colony (Perth, Western Australia).
The third looks at his time in WA including his marriage and the birth of his children.
On 10 April 2018, Cricket Australia announced the men’s and women’s teams that will commemorate the 150th anniversary of the 1868 tour to England by an indigenous team from Australia – the first ever overseas sporting tour by Australians. Ashleigh Gardner will captain the women’s team and Dan Christian the men’s.
This news prompted me to write this short blog and finalise an article on my Stevens ancestors of Witham, Essex, and their involvement in cricket, because this involvement included organising and playing in one of the matches against that touring indigenous team in September 1868.
My great-grand-uncle, Charles Richard Stevens (1851-1910) helped organise the match between the tourists and the ‘gentlemen’ of the Witham Cricket Club. He also played in the match. He only scored 4 and 6 as the tourists went on to win by an innings and 43 runs.
Judging by the members of the two teams soon to go to England, the current gentlemen of the Witham Cricket Club would seem unlikely to do as well against the tourists as their predecessors did in 1868.
The field on which they played still exists and cricket is still played on it as my photograph, taken in August 2016, attests. But it will not feature in this year’s tour.
My overview of the 1868 match and the involvement of the Stevens family in cricket in Witham can be found HERE.
Megan and I visited the State Library of NSW in December 2017 to photograph manuscripts related to the Drake and Marshall stories. Included amongst these documents were a number of sketches by the renowned 19th century artist Conrad Martens and a number of watercolour paintings by Henry Grant Lloyd all depicting Glengallan Station and aspects of the Darling Downs.
Banner image courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales [Call No. PXC 972 Item f.11]
The banner image is a section of a sketch by Conrad Martens entitled Glengallan Dec 30th 1851 C H Marshall Esq. The view is from the creek looking towards the north-west and is one of a number he sketched around this time.
The sketch shows the homestead and farm buildings as they were at the time that Charles Marshall and Robert Campbell tertius took control of the station.
Glengallan Darling Downs, HG Lloyd, Nov 6, 71
Courtesy State Library of NSW: PX*D 28 f.47
The paintings by Henry Grant Lloyd were painted in November 1871, almost exactly twenty years after Conrad Martens completed his sketches. This painting shows the farmstead as it was around the time of the formation of the Marshall and Slade partnership. It shows the current homestead, built by John Deuchar in the late 1860’s.
All of the documents have suffered to some extent from age. All show the effect of foxing and staining to a greater or lesser extent. The paintings also show the effect of the fading of certain pigments which has caused the images to both become less distinct and to change colour.
I have spent some time with Photoshop® trying to reverse or hide these effects. I can’t claim that the images are now as they would have been when drawn or painted because I have no benchmark for the adjustments I made. But they are now closer to what they would have been like and provide an interesting perspective on Glengallan and the surrounding area in the early 1850’s and early 1870’s.
John Maynard Keynes published an obituary to his mentor and teacher, Alfred Marshall (1842-1924), in The Economics Journal a few months after Alfred’s death. In the introduction to this obituary, he wrote that, “The Marshalls were a clerical family of the West, sprung from William Marshall, incumbent of Saltash, Cornwall, at the end of the seventeenth century.”
This prompted me to explore the Marshall lines of descent to see how extensive this clerical connection actually was. In the end, I found eleven clergymen in Alfred Marshall’s direct ancestry:
Rev. John Marshall (1728-1799), Alfred’s great-grandfather, Rector of St John’s and St George’s, Exeter; Master, Exeter Free Grammar School. (Listed by Keynes.)
Rev. William Marshall (1677-1756), Alfred’s great-great-grandfather, Rector of Ashprington, Devon. (Listed by Keynes.)
Rev. Charles Hawtrey (1687-1770), Alfred’s great-great-grandfather, Rector of Heavitree, Sub-Dean of Exeter. (Listed by Keynes.)
Rev. Edward Hawtrey (1605-1669), Alfred’s great-great-great-great-grandfather, rector of Denham, Buckinghamshire.
Rev. John Hawtrey (1645-1715), Alfred’s great-great-great-grandfather, vicar of Sanderstead, Surrey and of Mapledurham, Oxfordshire.
Rev. Richard Sleech (1675-1730), Alfred’s great-great-great-grandfather, Canon of Windsor.
Rev. William Thornton (1669-1718), Alfred’s great-great-great-grandfather, Rector of Birkin and Clapham.
Rev. Robert Thornton (1623-1698), Alfred’s great-great-great-great-grandfather, Rector of Birkin, Yorkshire.
Rev. Robert Thornton (~1597-1665), Alfred’s great-great-great-great-great-grandfather, Rector of Birkin, Yorkshire.
Rev. Nicholas Upman (married 1640), Alfred’s great-great-great-great-great-grandfather, of Westminster.
Rev. Stephen Upman (1643-1707), Alfred’s great-great-great-great-grandfather, Prebendary of Westminster, Rector of Stamford.
I also looked into the wider family because the Marshall, Hawtrey, Bentall, Sleech, and Thornton families, largely of the West of England, were extensively interconnected and intermarried over many generations. They produced many clerics. I found sixty-six clergymen amongst this wider group of ancestors.
I also found seventeen clerics amongst the family connections who were contemporaries of Alfred’s.
Keynes’s statement summarised the family’s connection to the Church quite succinctly.
A dinner party was held in the Glengallan homestead on 16 September 2017 to celebrate the homestead’s 150th anniversary. Megan was invited to speak on behalf of the Marshall descendants and present an overview of the family. This is a transcript of her speech.
Thank you for asking me to speak about my great-great-grandparents, Charles and Charlotte Marshall. It is good to be here, near where the “old house” stood, where my great-grandmother was born in 1859.
Charles and Charlotte were children of the expansion of the British Empire, with close ties to Totnes in Devon.
Charles was born in 1818 at Mauritius, where his father, William, was joint chief of police. William was born in Devon in 1780, and had gone to sea, aged 14, with the East India Company. When he married Louisa Bentall at Totnes in 1810, he joined the Army, and was posted to the Cape of Good Hope, and then Mauritius.
After a failed venture, William returned to England, alone, in 1822, but the family’s fortunes worsened the following March, when Louisa died at Mauritius, aged 39, probably during the cholera pandemic. The children re-joined their father in Scotland a year later.
Four years later, William died suddenly, and the Devon families rallied to care for the orphans. His probate poignantly recorded the children’s election of their uncle, John Bentall, as guardian of their inheritance, which secured their futures.
Charles was a mariner at Totnes by 1841, though details are scant. The only mention I have is of Charles working as third mate on board the Princess Charlotte in 1839.
He became bookkeeper for the Van Diemen’s Land (VDL) Company at Stanley in 1843, a position obtained through his father’s cousin, Edward Marshall of the War Office, a director of that Company. The Tenantry Return for that year uniquely described Charles as “a relation of … Edward Marshall” and as having “capital”.
The VDL Company archive in Hobart is vast. Documents show that in 1846 Charles was appointed Superintendent of Woolnorth at Cape Grim, running the sheep station. He resigned in 1849, with sufficient funds to try his luck in Queensland. By 1851 he was on Glengallan, becoming sole proprietor in July 1852.
Charlotte was born at Albany, Western Australia, in 1838. Her father, William Henry Drake, like his father, lived the peripatetic life of a Commissary. Henry was born in Portugal, where his father served during the Peninsular War. In 1831, Henry was sent to Perth, and there married Louisa Purkis.
He was transferred to Hobart in 1848, and two years later, to Canada, after which he was sent to London. On his arrival there in 1854, he was diverted to the Crimea for the duration of the war. He was stationed at Balaklava, where his wife and eldest daughter joined him. Charlotte and her sister, Laura, stayed with their grandparents in London, attending school.
When hostilities ceased in 1856, the Drakes were re-united in London. Henry’s second cousins, William and Mary Marshall, also from Totnes, were neighbours. Mary (born Benthall) was Charles Marshall’s first cousin, and William, a distant cousin of his.
So, fate ensured that Charles and Charlotte would meet when Charles visited England after going into partnership with John Deuchar. Henry’s Journal tells the story. In August 1856, Edward Marshall of the War Office called. Numerous visits with William and Mary Marshall followed, and, significantly, on the 6th of April 1857, the Drakes dined with them. Henry noted that “Mr. C. Marshall” was present. In May, Charles dined with the Drakes a few times, and had tea with them. In August, Henry, Louisa, Charlotte, and Charles went to an Art Exhibition, and visited the Tower of London.
On the 18th of August, Charlotte’s older sister, Louisa Maria, congratulated her on her engagement, saying, “You know I always said it would give me more pleasure to see you married than anything else … and … I do rejoice to think you will have a husband I like so much & everybody else thinks so highly of.”
Invitations for the Wedding Breakfast went out on the 11th of September, and on the 23rd, Charles and Charlotte were married at St Pancras Parish Chapel, in Camden, by Charles’s second cousin, the Rev. Stephen Hawtrey. Charlotte wore a hand-embroidered Honiton lace veil – the same one my mother wore when she married my father. Henry wrote that “A Party of 37 lunched with us … & at 3 p.m. the Bride & Bridegroom left for Rugby & a tour.”
Charlotte noted in her Journal that they “Left 21 Regents Park Terrace in style, having had an old white satin shoe thrown at us.” The couple explored the Lake District, Edinburgh, and York, and returned to London at the end of October. Henry wrote on the 12th of December that “Charles & Charlotte left Southampton … for Alexandria en route for Australia.” They arrived at Sydney on the 17th of February 1858.
And, so, on the 23rd of February 1859 my great-grandmother, Charlotte Louisa Marshall, was born, here, not long after her mother painted the beautiful watercolour featuring their wooden house, with Mount Marshall in the background. Thirty years later Charlotte told Slade that she was glad she “was not there to see the old house pulled down”.
The Marshalls had six children. Charles Henry, the youngest, was born in 1874, four months after his father’s sudden death. Officially, Charles senior died of “cardiac disease”, but I suspect he died from melanoma. Sir James Paget, London’s leading surgeon, performed what Charles called “a most severe operation” on a “malignant” tumour on his ear in mid-1873. Paget performed another operation in March 1874, when the tumour spread.
My mother told me that Charlotte discovered that Charles had had another family after he died. This family was not mentioned in his will, but we know there was a lost “side letter”, in which it seems he left a bequest. Charlotte wrote to Slade, cryptically saying that following her “dear husband’s death” she had had “very many other very heavy expenses to meet that no one knows of or suspects”.
I have searched high and low for this family, but only recently found the VDL Company Tenantry Report for August 1849, which showed Charles had an unnamed “wife” and “child”. It clearly wasn’t a formalised relationship. Charles did not abandon his secret family, as otherwise I would not have heard about them.
After Charles died, Charlotte had to take care of her investment. Her typically feminine Victorian education had not prepared her for this, but she worked hard to understand and to contribute intelligently.
She remarried in 1883, to the accomplished William Knighton. They signed a pre-marital deed, described by Charlotte to Slade as follows: “I have had a special clause put in … that the management of Glengallan should be carried on by you & by me as heretofore, no one else in England knows as much about it as I do, & I still feel quite capable of doing my part & you will find all just as before.” This prevented Knighton from interfering, though he did help when she was ill, or when family crises intervened. I know Slade didn’t find the Knightons easy to deal with, and vice versa, but relations were always respectful.
Knighton died in 1900, and in 1905 Marshall & Slade was dissolved, after the Government’s repurchase of Glengallan for closer settlement. Charlotte died of old age in 1922 at her home, Caberfeigh, in Redhill, Surrey. She was a remarkable woman: she was raised to be a traditional Victorian wife and mother, but became a successful Victorian capitalist.
The Marshalls’ substantial investment in Glengallan wouldn’t have been as lucrative as it was without the exceptional skill, hard work, and intelligence of both Deuchar and Slade. As the Brisbane Courier noted in November 1872, Charles Marshall had “taken into partnership … William B. Slade, one of the cleverest and most respected of the young gentlemen in the district”; and the Queenslander said in 1932 that “It was Mr. Deuchar who laid the foundation of the noted Shorthorn and merino studs on Glengallan.”
How different would all their lives have been if John Deuchar and Charles Marshall had been as long-lived as William Ball Slade.
In preparation for her speech, Megan prepared a summary of information regarding the Marshalls and their families. It proved to be too long for the dinner and had to be edited to yield this speech. The longer, more detailed summary can be found HERE.
My great grandfather was Richard Walford Stevens. His parents were Richard Stevens and Eliza Ann Malyon. Richard practised as a solicitor in Witham, a small town in Essex, as well as in London. He was initially articled to Edward Banks in Witham and lived with him at his residence in Newland Street. Once qualified, he became Edward Banks’s partner and eventually took over the practice and the residence.
Eliza Ann grew up in Witham and was, at one stage, a servant to Edward Banks and his clerk, Richard Stevens, whom she eventually married. Their family arrangements were interesting in that Eliza Ann and the children lived in London while Richard continued to live and practice with Edward Banks in Witham.
Richard Walford was born in London in 1859, the youngest of their eight children. His mother died soon afterwards and he and his siblings moved to Witham. The 1861 census shows them living in Newland Street with their father, an uncle, a cousin and four servants. The residence was therefore reasonably substantial.
In August 2016, Megan and I went to Witham to trace the family home and any other information we could find on the family. Janet Gyford, a local historian, very kindly showed us around and provided us with a lot of local knowledge.
We found the old residence. It was indeed a substantial building and still is. It is located at 100 Newland Street and, at the time the Stevens family lived there, was called Batsford. It is now a Wetherspoon public house.
This means that the building has had a number of additions and alterations, but much of the original building remains and it retains its character. The advantage of it being a pub is that we could just wander around and look at the building. We were also able to have dinner in the front room – probably close to where the family had had their dinners back in the mid to late 19th century. It was quite atmospheric.
I took a number of photographs and Janet Gyford provided a lot of historic detail about the house which can be found HERE.