Records of Exiles and Ticket-of-leave men
Crown Lands Records 1845 – 1852
Christopher Rolleston (Commissioner of Crown Lands, Darling Downs)
Record Book 1845 – 1852
Manuscripts in the Mitchell Library
ML A1764-1, CY Reel 789
The Record Book provides employment records for Exiles and Ticket of Leave (ToL) men. Coase differentiated between the two groups. He specifically referred to the ToL men as being able to work for wages in the private sector, but did not recognise the same freedoms for the Exiles. He implied that Exiles were indentured convict prisoners which they were not. He possibly felt that ‘Exile’ was just a euphemism for ‘Convict’, which it was not. Exiles were transported as convicts, but lived in Australia as free settlers, and the British government in fact paid for many of their families to join them. They were essentially forced migrants – hence the term.
The following tables show individual extracts from the Record Book in the order in which they are recorded followed by some commentary in explanation.
Ticket of Leave men
|23/8/1847||John Stobart||Exmouth||1831||Maitland||John Deuchar|
|20/8/1847||John Stobart||Exmouth||1831||Maitland||John Deuchar|
|1/1/1847||Anathoil(?) Laporte||“Layton” Moffatt||1835||[Hobart]||Colin Campbell|
|28/2/1849||Thomas Limm [Linn]||Recovery||1836||S cove||Charles Coxen|
|20/3/1849||Robert Riley||Isabella||1822||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|16/7/1849||Patrick Sutton||Roslin Castle /2/||1833||Moreton Bay||George Gammie|
|2/1/1849||Anatol Laporte||Moffatt||1838||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|2/1/1849||Patrick Cannan||Eliza /6/||1832||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|2/1/1849||William Holmes||Fairlie||1834||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|2/1/1849||John Stobart||Exmouth||1831||Maitland||John Deuchar|
|2/6/1849||Patrick Sutton||Roslyn Castle /3/||1833||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|2/6/1849||Robert Riley||Isabella /2/||1822||Moreton Bay||Colin Campbell|
|8/1/1850||George Stammers||Larkins||1829||–||John Deuchar|
|1/1/1851||Robert Riley||Isabella /2/||1822||Moreton Bay||CH Marshall|
|7/7/1851||William Holmes||Fairlie||1834||Moreton Bay||CH Marshall|
|1/1/1849||John Stobart||Exmouth||1831||Maitland||John Deuchar|
|11/9/1850||Patrick Cannan||“Eliza” /6/||1832||Moreton Bay||Robert Campbell|
|7/2/1850||Thomas Linn||Recovery /3/||1836||S cove||Charles Coxen|
|1/1/1850||Robert Riley||Isabella /2/||1822||Moreton Bay||Henry Alphane|
|1/1/1850||Patrick Cannan||Eliza||1832||Moreton Bay||Robert Campbell|
|1/1/1850||William Holmes||Fairlie||1834||Moreton Bay||Robert Campbell|
|1/1/1851||Patrick Cannan||Eliza||1832||Moreton Bay||CH Marshall|
|16/8/1851||Thomas Limm [Linn]||Recovery /3/||1836||S cove||Chas Marshall|
|18/2/1852||Anatol Laporte||Moffat||1838||Moreton Bay||CH Marshall|
|18/2/1852||Patrick Cannan||Eliza||1832||Moreton Bay||Geo. P Leslie|
|31/12/1852||William Holmes||Fairlie /1/||||Moreton Bay||CH Marshall|
Anatol Laporte is shown on www.convictrecords.com.au as having arrived on the Layton in 1835. It unloaded in Van Diemen’s Land (VDL). The Crown Lands record for 1847 shows the ship for him as Layton with Moffat struck through. All other entries show the ship for him as Moffat. There is no record of him for Moffat. He is also shown in The National Archives (TNA) document HO 11/10 which is for his transportation to VDL on the Layton. It would seem that the Moffat was the ship that transported him from VDL to NSW and its records are not held in Britain.
- Patrick Cannan assigned to MW Marsh of New England in 1841 and 1842, and to Colin Campbell on the Darling Downs for 12 months in 1848. The Government Gazette of 19 December 1851 shows his ToL being cancelled because he was absent from his district. It was clearly reinstated because he moved to George Leslie in 1852.
- William Holmes being granted a passport for the Moreton Bay district in 1848 without details of an assignee.
- Thomas Linn being granted a passport for Sydney Cove in 1845 with no other details; to McMullan of Liverpool Plains for 12 months in 1846; and to Charles Coxen on Darling Downs for 12 months in 1849.
- Robert Riley is also shown as Robert Reilley. He was granted a passport in Penrith in 1836 without any other details; to Colin Campbell of Darling Downs in 1849; and to Charles Marshall of Darling Downs for 12 months on 4 March 1851. He was also granted a passport for Moreton Bay in 1843. This had additional information recorded on it:
- He had a previous ticket in 1842 (42/15459) issued on the recommendation of the Commandant Royal Engineers – no district.
- The ticket was cancelled in 20 November 1851 because of absence from the district with a reference to papers 51/2761. (The passport for Charles for 1851 was 51/62). This cancellation was confirmed in Government Gazette of 19 December 1851.
- The ticket was reissued on 10 June 1852 after he explained his absence – reference 52/1085. There is also a reference to “C CdersDarling Downs” for 19 April 1852 and a reference 52/210.
- He is shown as the respondent, resident on Glengallan, for an advertisement in the Moreton Bay Courier of 22 May 1847 in respect of a lost cheque. This indicates that he was working for Colin Campbell at the time and was trusted to deal with money matters.
Coase states that Charles recruited six ToL men. He actually recruited five, because one of those assigned in 1852, William Holmes, was also assigned in 1851. Four were men who had previously been employed by Colin Campbell, the previous owner of Glengallan, and therefore had experience of the station. Two of these (William Holmes and Patrick Cannan) had moved to Robert Campbell and were therefore men already on Glengallan. Robert Riley was employed by Colin Campbell in 1849, Henry Alphane in 1850, and Charles in 1851. (Henry Alphane was at one time a stockman with the Leslies.) The last of the four, Anatol Laporte, was a long term employee of Colin Campbell and had moved to Queensland from NSW with him.
The fifth, Thomas Linn was recruited in 1851 having been employed by Charles Coxen in 1849 and 1850, but is not shown as renewed in 1852 as William Holmes was. This suggests that he moved on.
Coase stated that Charles was probably also able to use the ToL men assigned to Robert Campbell. Only two men were assigned to Robert Campbell and both are amongst the five who Charles is shown as having recruited. There were no extras.
The ToL passports were generally for 12 months although William Holmes’s is shown in 1851 as being for three years and his 1851 employment is shown as being renewed in 1852. Patrick Cannan clearly only stayed with Charles for a short period as his ToL was cancelled in December 1851 for being absent and he is shown as being employed by George Leslie in 1852. Robert Riley’s ToL was also cancelled in December 1851 because he was absent. This means that of the four employed in 1851 only one, William Holmes, continued in 1852 when he was joined by Anatol Laporte. It is not clear how long William Holmes remained on Glengallan, but it is known that Anatol Laporte remained on Glengallan for many years and was clearly a trusted and valued employee.
|1/1/1850||William Clarke||Hashemy||1849||Robert Campbell|
|1/1/1850||Joseph Burton||Hashemy||1849||Robert Campbell|
|15/8/1850||John Viney||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||Henry Cooper||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||George Hayles||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||Robert White||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||John Young||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||William Maynard||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|15/8/1850||Charles Williams||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|18/1/1851||Thomas Shimmons||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
|18/2/1852||William Belson||Hashemy||1849||John Deuchar|
|9/3/1852||John Sullivan||Havering||1849||CH Marshall|
|6/12/1852||James Skyrannakel||Bangalore||1850||CH Marshall|
Coase states that Charles listed for seven Exiles in 1850, one in 1851 and three in 1852 including one taken on by Robert Campbell in 1850. The records confirm the numbers for 1850 and 1851. Charles took on only two Exiles in 1852 and neither of them had previously been taken on by Robert Campbell in 1850. Charles therefore took on ten exiles and none from Robert Campbell.
Thomas Shimmons is shown as having his ToL cancelled because of absence in the Government Gazette of 5 August 1851.
Clarke, Burton and Belson, who were transported on the Hashemy, are recorded in TNA document HO 11/15.
Those who travelled on the Bangalore are listed in TNA document HO 11/16.