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End Notes

1.  Manumit, the act of freeing a slave. LINK

2.  Kommando was the name given to a group of citizens, generally farmers, who came together for military service in defence of the community. The Kommando system was established in 1659 by the first Commandeur of the settlement, Jan van Riebeeck, and became the mainstay of military defence for the expanding settlement right up to the time of the two Anglo Boer Wars (1881 and 1899). Winston Churchill was so impressed with their resilience and abilities that when the new special forces units were formed during WWII, he decreed that they should be called Commandos. They still are. The British Royal Marine Commandos even have as their regimental tune the favourite Boer tune from the Second Anglo Boer War, My Sarie Marias.

3.  eGGSA Cape Muster Roll 1707. LINK

4.  Geni: Van der Merwe archive. There is debate about whether Willem Schalk came from Broeck in Belgium or Oud-Beijerland near Rotterdam. The presentation in the archive provides strong reasons against Belgium and for Rotterdam as his place of origin.

5.  An arquebus is a type of matchlock, smooth bore long gun usually distinguished by having a hook on its under-side for steadying the weapon. An arquebusier is a soldier/sailor armed with such a weapon. LINK

6.  Ardelborst is usually translated today as midshipman – the most junior commissioned rank on a naval ship – but a ship’s officer being responsible for agriculture is not sensible so this translation is not appropriate. The term was, however, not confined to the navy at the time and was also used in general for junior officers which seems more appropriate. Leibbrandt translates the term as ‘cadet’. ENGLISH DUTCH

7. Only two groups of African slaves were taken to the Cape at this time, both in 1658. The Amersfoort brought 125 Angolan slaves that it had captured from a Portuguese slaver off Brazil. The Hasselt brought 225 slaves who had been bought at [Grand] Popo on the coast of Benin, West Africa. Of these, the healthiest and youngest, 92 from Angola and 80 from Guinea, were sent to Batavia. The physical condition of those remaining at the Cape was not good and many died. No further African slaves arrived as trading in slaves from West Africa was the preserve of the Dutch West Indies Company, and the trade on the east coast of Africa was dominated by the British and Arabs. Koddo, also called Plad Oor (Flat Ear) arrived at the Cape on 6 May 1658 on the Hasselt. Although she and the others from the Hasselt were recorded as ‘Van Guinea’, they could have come from any number of adjoining territories. (Upham 2014b)

8. The principal currencies at the Cape until 1658 were the Guilder (Gulden) and the Spanish Rial. The Rial was replaced by the Rijksdaalder (Rixdollar), abbreviated as Rds, and was of equal value. The Guilder was also referred to as the florin hence its symbol ‘ƒ’. One Guilder consisted of 20 Stuiven each worth 16 Penning. Reminiscent of £.s.d. One Rijksdaalder was worth ƒ3 at the Cape, and ƒ2.4 in The Netherlands.

9. The Cape Rood is a unit of measure equal to 12 Cape Feet. The Cape Foot was based on the Rhynland Foot and was equal to 1.033 English Feet. The Morgen or Cape Morgen is a unit of area equal to 600 square Cape Roods. This is equal to 86,400 square feet which is slightly smaller than 100 yards squared, which is 90,000 square feet. DOWNLOAD

10. There was no Germany in the 1600s. The country was a patchwork of scores of baronies, duchies, kingdoms, and bishoprics – the remnants of the Holy Roman Empire. The city of Cologne (Köln) was in the Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln ). Dutch records sometimes show Köln as Ceulen or Keulen and Oedt/Ödt as Ut. Oedt was in this Electorate of Cologne, but is situated about 58km to the north west of the city of Cologne and about 12 km from the Dutch border. MAP

11. Cape Archives: Verbatim Copies. CA: VC 603, G 1/1, Doopregister (29 April 1668), p. 4. LINK

12. Doopregister Kaapstad 1669. LINK

13. Cape Archives: Verbatim Copies. CA:VC 39, II. Monsterrol 15 May 1666. p. 66.
Mansell Upham indicates on page 52 of Cape Mothers (Upham 2014a), that he is recorded in the roll as Hans Christoffel Snijder from Heydelberg, a soldier under the Chamber of Enckhuizen. He also discusses how the name Snijder, the Dutch spelling of Schneider, evolved into the name Snijman – both meaning Tailor, the cutter or cutting man. This is incorrect. There is indeed a listing for this soldier Snijder, but he is clearly a different person from Hans Christoffel Snijman. Upham is also incorrect in stating that the entry for Snijman is a duplicate, erroneous entry for Snijder. The entry for Snijman is a separate, correct entry and it is replicated in 1667. Snijder is listed in the membership roll of the church at this time, but otherwise disappears from the records. There were two Hans Christoffels at the Cape at the time. One called Snijman and one called Snijder. For full analysis see PDF

14. Muid: An old Dutch unit of dry volume measure used for grain in South Africa equal to three bushels – 24 gallons or 109 litres. LINK

15. Anthonij van Bengale’s estate papers provide a lot of interesting information about the family. I have analysed them in detail and that analysis can be found in this separate report. Report/PDF 

16. Pierre Simond was a French Huguenot minister who went to the Cape to establish a church for the Huguenot migrants. He established the church in the Drakenstein region and the locality was later named Simondium after him. He was by all accounts a man of forceful opinions. Afrikaans  English

17. Leaguers (Dutch Leggers) is an obsolete Dutch volume measure used for wine. 1 Legger is approximately 575 litres and is roughly equivalent to the English Butt. LINK

18. A Heemraad was a member of the Commission of Landros en Heemrade and was responsible for legal and administrative matters. The name Heemraad is derived from the Dutch title for the official responsible for dykes. LINK (Afrikaans)


Booyens H. 2009. Jacob and Fijtje Cloeten “van Ut in ’t Land van Ceulen” , Familia 46 (1) 2009. Genealogical Society of South Africa. PDF

Carey, Agnes. 1920. Empress Eugenie in Exile, New York: The Century Co.

First Fifty Years. Cloete, Elsje profile. LINK

_____. Kickers, Maria profile. LINK

_____. Van der Merwe, Willem Schalksz profile. LINK

Genealogy report for Howard Charles Thomas, page 226. PDF

Geni. Van der Merwe Archive. LINK

_____. Potgieter, Jan Harmensz. LINK

Leibbrandt H.C.V. 1897. Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, January 1659 – May 1662, Riebeeck’s Journal &c., Part III. Cape Town: WA Richards & Sons. PDF

_____. 1900. Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, Letters Despatched from the Cape 1652-1662, Vol III. Cape Town: WA Richards & Sons. PDF

_____. 1901. Precis of the Archives of the Cape of Good Hope, Journal 1662-1670. Cape Town: WA Richards & Sons. PDF

Smuts, Kathryn. 2012. Report on Research Excavation of the Stables Building at Solms Delta Farm, Groot Drakenstein, Western Cape. Conducted as Component of Masters of Philosophy. PDF

Stamouers. Van der Merwe. LINK

_____. Botha, Friedrich. LINK

Suid-Afrikaanse Geslagsregister (SAG). 1986. Pretoria. Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing.

Upham, Mansell. 2012a. Made or Marred by Time. First Fifty years. PDF

_____. 2012b. Keeping the gate of Hell. First Fifty years. PDF

_____. 2014a. Cape Mothers. First Fifty years. PDF

_____. 2014b. At Earth`s Extremest End. First Fifty years. PDF

_____. 2015. What can’t be cured must be endured. First Fifty years. PDF

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©Alun Stevens 2019

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