Death of Raglan and the spoils of war
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The next major event that affected Henry occurred in the evening of 28 June 1855. He noted in his Journal:
At night, Major Mackenzie 1 & Ross 2 Q.M.G. Dept. came to my house about lead for a Coffin for Lord Raglan who died at 8½ p.m. At 11 p.m. note from The Honle. Colonel A. Gordon 3 to Mr. Filder 4 intimating it
Not long after, on 3 July, Henry wrote,
At 4 p.m. the remains of Lord Raglan were removed from Head Quarters to Kazatch Bay to be sent to England by H.M.S. Caradoc. Louisa & Miss Lu went.
The procession that Louisa and Louisa Maria witnessed was painted by William Simpson:
Funeral Cortege of Lord Raglan Leaving Head Quarters, William Simpson
GeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University
On Lord Raglan’s death Lt. Gen. Simpson 5 took over as Commander of the Forces. Not long after, on 26 July, C.G. William Filder relinquished charge of the Commissariat, with Henry’s former superior officer from his days in Hobart, C.G. Sir George Maclean, 6 taking over as head of the Commissariat in the Crimea. While waiting for Sir George’s arrival in the Crimea, Henry was directed to take charge of the Commissariat in the Crimea. When Sir George arrived, on 4 August Henry was placed “in charge of local Commissariat duties irrespective of the Depôt”.
Sevastopol was eventually captured in early September 1855, and with it came the distribution of spoils. On 14 September Henry wrote in his Journal, saying:
I was appointed one of the Commission Mixte under the Convention between France & England. Members: French Genl. Niel 7 President, M. Genl. Mesure [Mazare] Arty., Con. Adml. Rigault de Gonville [sic], 8 Mons. L’Intendent Gde. Impe. Paris. English Major Gen. Sir R. Dacres R.A. 9 The Honble. Capt. Drummond R.N., 10 Lt. Col. Chapman R.E. 11 & D.C.G. Drake. We met at noon at Genl. Niel’s; read Commission & Convention, appointed sub commission for the two Districts of Sevastopol. 1stDistrict under M. Genl. Mesure [Mazare] & 2nd under Brig. Genl. Dupuis R.A. 12
The distribution of the spoils of the Crimea was complicated, and on 14 October Henry noted that he “Went with Brig. Genl. Dupuis & Lt. Whynigates 13 R.H.A. to French Park to divide the Brass Guns. English get 67, French 68 after 10 to Turks & 2 to Sardinians.”
The final result of the distribution was published in the following report in the Royal Cornwall Gazette of 7 December 1855:
THE STORES AT SEBASTOPOL.
On the 10th of July this year a treaty was entered into between France and England with respect to the distribution of booty and trophies, which enabled the French and English Governments to form a mixed commission for the purpose of classifying and arranging such articles. In compliance with this provision Marshal Pelissier 14 named the following officers on behalf of the French army immediately after the capture of Sebastopol: – General of Division Niel, Aide-de-Camp d l’Empereur, President, and commanding the Engineers; General of Division Thiry, commanding Artillery; Admiral Regnault de Genouilly, commanding Marine Artillery; M. Paris, Intendant (Commissary-General); M. Budin, Payeur-General. General Simpson named the following officers for the English army: – Sir G. Dacres, commanding Royal Artillery; Captain Drummond, R.N.; Colonel Chapman, commanding Royal Engineers; Mr. Drake, Assistant Commissary General. It will be observed that the English officers are not equal in rank or numbers to the French members of the Commission.
The Commission met on the 15th of September at the quarters of General Niel. Its first act was to order an inventory in detail to be made of everything found in Sebastopol. To effect this the city and forts were divided, and the care of exploring each part devolved upon sub-commissions. The first of these, charged with the exploration of the west of the city and of Forts Nicholas and Alexander, of the Quarantine and of the Central Bastion, and of the Bastion du Mât (Flagstaff), were, M. Mazare, General of Artillery, President, M. Cacoze, Captain of Artillery, French, Captain Dickson, R.A., 15 Compte Feldtrappe, French Engineers, Captain Montagu, R.E., 16 Lieutenant Laurent, French Navy, Lieutenant Buller, R.N., 17 M. Gontier, French Assistant Commissary-General, and Mr. Lundy, Deputy Assistant Commissary-General. 18 The second sub-commission, charged to explore the east of the city, the Redan of Careening Bay, the Malakhoff, the Great Redan, and the adjacent works, consisted of – Brigadier-General Dupuis, Royal Horse Artillery, President; Captain Shaw, Royal Artillery, Comte de Callac, Imperial Artillery, Major Staunton, R.E.; Major Cadart, Imperial Engineers; Commander Marten, R.N.; 19 Commander de Genoux, Imperial Navy; Mr. Crookshank, Deputy-Assistant-Commissary-General; 20 M. Goutran, same rank French army; and Lieutenant Rumble, R.M.A. On the 25thof September the Commission held its second sitting, and all the members were present except General Thiry, who was represented by General Mazare. That officer and Brigadier-General Dupuis, as presidents of the sub-commissions, then laid on the table a detailed statement of everything found in Sebastopol. The number of cannon in bronze (brass) is 128; that of iron guns, 3,711; total 3, 839. The President read the convention of the 10th of July, and it was then unanimously agreed that the guns should be divided into two equal parts, paying due regard to the different calibres, and that one-half should be sent to French, the other half to Great Britain, with the exception of two field brass pieces, which should be offered to General de la Marmora, 21 with the approbation of the Commanders-in-Chief; but that for the present they should remain in Sebastopol, and in the redoubts and fortifications of Kamiesch and Balaklava, till such time as they were not required for the defence of the place, when each Government might do what they liked with their own share. These decisions, taken conformably to the first act of the Convention, leave the valuation of the pieces out of the question; but by the 4th article of the same Convention it is agreed that the value of the booty, &c., shall be divided between the two Powers proportionally to the number of men each had serving in the siege. The effective strength of the Anglo-Sardinian army on the 8th of September was 63,715 men, and that of the French army on the same day was 126,705 men. The Commission, therefore, decided that France should have two-thirds, and Great Britain one-third of the value of the booty and trophies. It was declared impossible to fix the value of the guns immediately, in consequence of want of sufficient information and of the necessity of employing the iron guns in the defence of the place. The Commission, therefore, passed on to the partition of the other materiel taken, and divided the following into three parts, two for France and one-third for England, with the understanding that they are to remain for the supply of the defence: – 407,314 round shot; shell, 101,755; canister cases, 24,080; gunpowder, 525,000lb.; ball cartridges for muskets and carbines, 470,000 in good condition, and 160,000 damaged; wagons, 80; yawls, 6; logs of lignum vitæ, 500; anchors of port moorings, 400; anchors of different sizes, 90; grapplings and small anchors, 50; chains for anchors, 200 yards; old copper for sheathing, 104,000lb.; old ropes, 100,000lb.; water casks, 300; new ropes of different sizes, 50,000lb.; pulleys, 400; spars, 40; tools, 300; bar iron and steel, 1,460,000lb.; iron wire, 400lb.; iron checks, 320lb.; sheet iron, 16,000lb.; tin plate, 14,000lb.; red copper, 120,000lb.; nails, 6,000lb.; firewood, a large quantity; pitch and tar, 200 barrels; barrels of paint, 150; small boilers, weighing 6,000lb.; the remains of a steam-engine of 220-horse power, taken out of a steamer burnt by the Russians; large copper boilers, weighing 100,000lb., 8; old copper, 100,000lb.; copper screws, 10,000lb.; old iron, 160,000lb.; large bells, 6; small bells, 10; hospital beds, 350; iron forges, in great numbers; main tackles, 12; coal, 2,000 tons; steam-engines, of 30-horse power, for the basins, 2; large pumps, for the basins, 3; iron boilers, 3; 1 high-pressure engine of 16-horse power, for the basins; iron cranes, 17; an engine of 12-horse power in the military bakery; 2 dredging machines of 30-horse power, unserviceable; a still, a clock, six marble statues, two sphinxes, a large basso-relieve; biscuit, 500 tons; flour, 150; barley, 9; buckwheat, 117; oats, 18; millet, 54; wheat, 20; peas 1½; salt meat, 60; wheat in the granaries, 500 quarters, &c.
The Commission, having examined the quantity and quality of the breadstuffs found in the magazines, declared them unfit for the use of the allied armies, and decided that should be sent to Eupatoria for the support of the Tartars, to whom the allies furnish subsistence, and the French Intendance is charged with that duty. They consisted of 11,000 sacks, weighing 500 tons, of black bread, 370 sacks or 150 tons of flour, 100 sacks or 9 tons of barley; 1,300 sacks or 117 tons of black barley, 18 tons of hay, 54 tons of millet, 20 tons of barley, 1½ tons of peas, 60 tons of salt meat, and 500 quarters of barley in the granaries. The Commission decided further that the few objects of art found in the place should be placed at the disposal of the General-in-Chief, and finished the sitting by nominating as secretary M. de Genoux, Capitaine de Frégate.
The third sitting took place on the 20th of September, and the subject of their deliberations was the valuation of the guns. As the calibres of the Russian artillery do not correspond with those of the allies, it was decided unanimously that in the valuation of the guns they should only take count of the value of the metal, which was fixed at 2f. 50c. per kilogramme for brass guns, and at 10c. for iron guns. One of the members observed, that among the brass guns there were two field pieces, and it was at once declared to be the wish of the Commander to put these guns at the disposal of the Ottoman Porte. It was further decided that, as many of the articles could not be divided, a distribution should take place as might be best arranged, and, accordingly a high pressure engine of 20-horse power, a distilling machine, and a clock were comprised in the French list, and in the English list were comprised a high-pressure engine of 16-horse-power and a furnace. As it would be impossible to divide the wood of the houses and buildings to be demolished, the city itself was divided, and to the English was allotted the east and to the French the western portion. The list already published gives the gross amount found, but there were immense quantities of all kinds of articles, muskets, clothing, &c., improperly removed. Mr. Johnson, naval instructor, was named as English secretary, and Mr. Cruikshank, 22 since the close of the sittings, has discovered a store containing about 5000 suits of Russian military clothing. The following is a part of the English return: –
GUNS IN MALAKHOFF, REDAN, &c.
|7 to 7½ inch ditto||76||11|
|6 to 6½ ditto||846||135|
|5 to 5½ ditto||310||85|
|Brass cohorns, 6 to 6½ inch||21||0|
|Brass field pieces||16||0|
The return includes eight 8-inch and two 3 7/8-inch brass guns.
|Number of Shot.||Shell.||Grape.||Live Shell.||Powder and small Ammunition.|
|257,314||60,515||13,380||1,240||419,200 lb. of powder, 436,000 lb. of ammunition.|
|Three small bells and one large one of fine tones, Two marine condensing steam engines of
50-horse power in good condition, nearly new
|Three large pumps for pumping out the docks, in good condition, with gear complete||2,500|
|Three iron boilers for engines||1,500|
|Spare gear for the above||700|
|Blocks, with brass sheaves||10|
|One 16-horse power engine, for pumping out coffer-dam, not complete||800|
|Three 3-ton cranes, good||1,500|
|One ditto, not fixed, good||200|
|One 12-horse power condensing engine, for bakery||200|
|One 20 horse high-pressure engine, incomplete, with gear packed in cases||900|
|Iron boiler and iron chimney, complete||800|
|Copper boiler, for steaming plank||336|
|Pair of 220-horse power marine engines, unfit for use, original value||12,000|
|Eight copper boilers for ditto, repairable, 50 tons||5,600|
|Patent ship cradle dredging machine, &c.||3,100|
|Copper, pumps, forges, hydraulic pump||32,146|
This, taken with the French return, gives the total in the list; but there is an immense number of small articles which would swell the inventory to an immense extent. The Karabelusia, or English portion, it will be observed, contained the largest and most valuable portion of the articles captured. The 14 bells are divided thus – one of 2500.00 kilos, French Pars de Siège, one 21 cwt. Ditto, one 16 cwt. Ditto, one 533,00 kilos at Right Siege Train, another of 146,00 kilos at ditto, one 68,00 kilos at French Parc de siege, one of 3 quarters 22 lb. at ditto, ditto; one of 3 quarters 17 lb. at Parc du Moulin; one of 36.00 kilogrammes at Right Siege Train; one of 26 4.5 lb. at French Parc de Siege; one of 9.00 kilos. at General Mazare’s office.
The quantity of wood taken from the place is very great, and it still furnishes our officers, who are left to their own resources, with vast supplies – only to be got under fire however – of wood, iron, bricks, and cut stone. It is a hard tug for horses and men to get them up from the city, and the enemy are sure to let fly a shot at them whenever they see a party engaged in collecting wood or building materials. 23
This distribution of spoils has led to the proliferation of Russian cannon throughout the Commonwealth, such as at the Centennial Parklands in New South Wales whose arrival in Australia is discussed here. The City of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Limerick Harbour, Ireland, Berwick Upon Tweed Castle, Evesham, Retford, Chelmsford also have cannon. There is also one outside Ely Cathedral in Cambridgeshire.
|Russian cannon outside Ely Cathedral
©Alun Stevens 2005
The war still wore on, and an expedition to Eupatoria was mooted. On 13 October Henry was “Ordered by Sir G. Maclean to accompany it & superintend the Commissariat.” On 15 October the expedition was counter-ordered, but on 18 October at “5 p.m. [Henry] embarked on bd. Oneida No. 222 Capt. Morton with Detmt. 12th Lancers for Eupatoria.” The Oneida returned to Balaklava on the 27th.
2. Major Robert Lockhart Ross (died 1873), Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General, Balaklava.
OBITUARY OF EMINENT PERSONS. COLONEL LOCKHART ROSS. Colonel Robert Lockhart Ross, C.B., died recently. The son of Colonel Robert Ross, of the 4th Dragoon Guards, he entered the 93rd Highlanders in 1840, and served first in Canada. In 1854 he proceeded to the Crimea, was present at Alma and Balaklava, and shortly afterwards was appointed by Lord Raglan Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General. Subsequently, he was actively engaged during the Indian Mutiny and the war in China, and from 1866 to 1968 held a staff appointment in Egypt. Colonel Lockhart Ross had received the Crimean, Indian Mutiny, and China medals, with clasps, the Order of the Medjidie, and Turkish and Sardinian medals. [“Obituary of Eminent Persons.” Illustrated London News [London, England] 26 July 1873: 91+. The Illustrated London News Historical Archive, 1842-2003. Web. 23 July 2013.] ▲
12. Brig.-Gen. John Edward Dupuis (died 1876), R.A.
OBITUARY OF EMINENT PERSONS. GENERAL SIR J. E. DUPUIS. General Sir John Edward Dupuis, K.C.B., who died on the 25th ult., was the son of the late Rev. George Dupuis, Rector of Wendlebury, near Bicester. He received his education at the Military Academy, Woolwich, and entered the Royal Artillery in 1825. From 1836 to 1838 he was employed with the Spanish army, including the action of Hernani. He served during the Crimean War, was at the battles of the Alma, Balaclava, and Inkermann; and at Sebastopol twice commanded the Royal Artillery. He commanded the Artillery in India, from 1857 to 1859, in many affairs, including the operations before Cawnpore. Dupuis had received the Crimean medal and four clasps, the Indian medal, the Order of St. Fernando of Spain, the Legion of Honour and the Medjidie, and the Sardinian medals. He was made a C.B. in 1856, a K.C.B. in 1865, and attained the rank of General in 1868. He was given command of the eleventh brigade of the Royal Artillery in 1865. [“Obituary of Eminent Persons.” Illustrated London News [London, England] 2 Dec. 1876: 543. The Illustrated London News Historical Archive, 1842-2003. Web. 24 July 2013.] ▲
13. Lt. Frederick Thomas Whinyates (1833-1915).
Deaths. WHINYATES – Aug. 28, at Bournemouth, Frederick Thomas Whinyates, Major-General late R.H.A., of Cheltenham, and Walton, Cumberland, aged 82 years. [“Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries.” Cheltenham Chronicle and Gloucestershire Graphic [Cheltenham, England] 4 Sept. 1915: 2. British Library Newspapers. Web. 22 Apr. 2018.] ▲
16. Capt. Horace William Montagu (1823-1916), R.E. ▲
18. ACG James Bell Lundy (1822-1884).
DEATHS. LUNDY. – On the 24th inst., at Ripley Lodge, Anersley, Commissary-General James Bell Lundy, only surviving son of the late Francis Lundy, M.A., rector of Lockington, Yorks., in his sixty-third year. [“Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries.” Morning Post [London, England] 26 Apr. 1884: . 19th Century British Newspapers. Web. 10 July 2013.] ▲
20. DACG Alexander Crowder Crookshank (1824-1877).
Deputy Commissary-Gen. A. Crowder Crookshank, C.B., District Commissary-Gen., whose death at Dublin was recorded yesterday, served throughout the campaign of 1854-55, in commissariat charge of the Cavalry Division from the landing in the Crimea; was present at the affairs of Balganac and M’Kenzie’s Farm, the Battles of the Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman, and the Tchernaya, and the siege of Sebastopol. For his services during the Eastern Campaign he received the medal and four clasps, the decoration of the fifth class of the Medjidie, and the Turkish medal. He also served on the China Expedition of 1857-58 in commissariat charge of the Expeditionary Field Force, and was present at the capture of Canton. He was for some years stationed at Ceylon as Assist.-Commissary-Gen. and was appointed to Dublin in December, 1872. In consideration of his valuable services in the Control Department he was, in 1873, made a Companion of the Order of the Bath. [“Naval And Military Intelligence.” Times [London, England] 17 Apr. 1877: 12. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 21 Apr. 2018.] ▲
22. Probably DACG Alexander Crowder Crookshank. ▲
23. “THE STORES AT SEBASTOPOL.” Royal Cornwall Gazette, Falmouth Packet, and General Advertiser [Truro, England] 7 December 1855: 6. 19thCentury British Newspapers. Web. 24 July 2013. ▲
©Megan Stevens 2018